Part 6 (1/2)

[1] The conception of ”Nature's Perfect Engine” was originally arrived at by the author from consideration of the phenomena of the steam-engine. The following extract from the ”Review” of his work (1895) ill.u.s.trates the various stages which finally lead to that conclusion:--

”My first steps in the right direction came about thus. I had always been working with a cylinder and piston, and could make no progress, till at length it struck me to make my cylinder high enough to do without a piston--that is, to leave the steam to itself and observe its behaviour when left to work against gravity. The first thing I had to settle was the height of my cylinder. And I found, by calculation from Regnault's experiments that it would require to be very high, and that the exact height would depend on the temperature of the water in the boiler which was the bottom of this ideal cylinder. Now, at any ordinary temperature the height was so great that it was impossible to get known material to support its own weight, and I did not wish to use a hypothetical substance in the construction of this engine. Finally, the only course left me was to abolish the cylinder as I had done the piston. I then discovered that the engine I had been trying to evolve--the perfect engine--was not the ideal thing I had been groping after but an actual reality, in full working order, its operations taking place every day before my eyes.

”Every natural phenomenon fitted in exactly; it had its function to perform, and the performance of its function const.i.tuted the phenomenon. Let me trace the a.n.a.logy in a few of its details. The sea corresponds to the boiler; its cylinder surrounds the earth; it has for its fuel the axial energy of the earth; it has no condenser because it has no exhaust; the work it performs is all expended in producing the fuel. Every operation in the cycle is but an energy transformation, and these various transformations const.i.tute the visible life of the world.”

[2] For definite numerical examples see the author's _Terrestrial Energy_ (Chap. 1.).

It will be evident, from a general consideration of this process of transmission of energy from the aqueous vapour, that relatively large quant.i.ties of that vapour are not required in the atmosphere for the working of the gaseous machine. The peculiar property of ready condensation of the aqueous vapour makes the evaporative process a continuous one, and the highly energised aqueous material, although only present in comparatively small amount, contributes a continuous flow of energy, and is thus able to steadily convey a very large quant.i.ty to the atmospheric For the same reason, the greater part of the energy transmission from the aqueous vapour to the air will take place at comparatively low alt.i.tudes and between reasonably high temperatures.

The working of any evaporative cycle may also be spread over very large terrestrial areas by the free movement of the acting material. Aqueous vapour rising in equatorial regions may finally return to the earth in the form of ice-crystals at the poles. In every complete cycle, however, the total expenditure per unit ma.s.s of material initially evaporated is always the latent heat at the higher or evaporation temperature; in the final or return stages of the cycle, any energy not transmitted to the air is devoted to the heating of returning aqueous material.

Referring again to the transmitted energy, and speaking in the broadest fas.h.i.+on, the function of the aqueous vapour in the atmosphere may be likened to that of the steam in the cylinder of a steam-engine. In both cases the aqueous material works in a definite machine for energy transmission. In the case of the steam-engine work energy is transmitted (-- 31) from the steam through the medium of the moving piston and rotating shaft, and thence may be further diverted to useful purposes.

In the planetary atmospheric machine the work energy of aqueous vapour is likewise transmitted by the agency of the moving air, not to any external agent, but back once more to its original source, which is the planetary axial energy. In neither case are we able to explain the precise nature of the transmission process in its ultimate details. We cannot say _how_ the steam transmits its work energy by the moving piston, nor yet by what agency the elevated particles of aqueous material transmit their energy to the air Our knowledge is confined entirely to the phenomena, and, fortunately, these are in some degree accessible. Nature presents direct evidence that such transmissions actually take place. This evidence is to be found, in both cases, in the condensation of the aqueous material which sustains the loss of its work energy. In the engine cylinder condensation takes place due to work being transmitted from the steam; in the atmosphere the visible phenomena of condensation are likewise the ever present evidence of the transmission of work energy from the aqueous vapour to the air In virtue of this accession of energy these will, accordingly, be expanded upwards against the gravitational attractive forces. This upward movement, being made entirely at the expense of energy communicated from the aqueous vapour, is not accompanied by the normal fall of temperature due to the expansion of the air. Planetary axial energy, originally absorbed by the aqueous vapour, in the work form, has been transferred to the air in the same form, and is now, after the expansive movement, resident in these in the form of energy of position. It is the function of the atmospheric machine in its final stage to return this energy in the original axial form.

41. _Terrestrial Energy Return_

Let it be a.s.sumed that an atmospheric ma.s.s has been raised, by the transmission of work energy, to a high alt.i.tude in the equatorial regions of the earth. The a.s.sumption of locality is made merely for ill.u.s.trative purposes; it will be evident to the reader that the transmission of work energy to the atmospheric and their consequent elevation will be continuously proceeding, more or less, over the whole planetary surface. To replace the gaseous material thus raised, a corresponding ma.s.s of air will move at a lower level, towards the equator from the more temperate zones adjoining. A circulatory motion will thus be set up in the atmosphere. In the upper regions the elevated and energised air move towards the poles; at lower levels the replacing move towards the equator, and in their pa.s.sage may be operated on by the aqueous vapour which they encounter, energised, and raised to higher levels. The movement will be continuous.

In their transference from equatorial towards polar regions, the atmospheric are leaving the surfaces or regions of high linear velocity for those of low, and must in consequence lose or return in the pa.s.sage a portion of that natural energy of motion which they possess in virtue of their high linear velocity at the equator. But on the other hand, the replacing air, which are travelling in the opposite direction from poles to equator, must gain or absorb a corresponding amount of energy. The one operation thus balances the other, and the planetary equilibrium is in no way disturbed. But the atmospheric which are moving from the equator in the polar direction will possess, in addition, that energy of position which has been communicated to them through the medium of the aqueous vapour and by the working of the second stage of the atmospheric machine. These, in the circulatory polar movements, move downwards towards the planetary surface. In this downward motion (as in the downward motion of a pendulum ma.s.s vibrating under the action of gravitation) the energy of position of the air ma.s.s is converted once more into energy of motion--that is, into its original form of axial energy of rotation. In equatorial regions the really important energy property of the atmospheric ma.s.s was indicated by its elevation or its energy of position. In the descent this energy is thus entirely transformed, and reverts once more to its original form of energy of rotation.

The continual transformation of axial energy by the aqueous vapour, and the conversion of that energy by the upward movement of the air into energy of position, naturally tends to produce a r.e.t.a.r.dative effect on the motion of revolution of the earth. But this r.e.t.a.r.dative effect is in turn completely neutralised or balanced by the corresponding accelerative effect due to the equally continuous return as the energy of the air reverts in the continuous polar movement to its original axial form. Speaking generally, the equatorial regions, or the regions of high velocity, are the location of the most powerful transformation or abstraction of axial energy by the aqueous vapour.

Conversely, the polar or regions of low velocity are the location of the greatest return of energy by the air. As no energy return is possible unless by the transference of the atmospheric material from regions of high to regions of low velocity, the configuration of the planet in rotation must conform to this condition. The spheroidal form of the earth is thus exquisitely adapted to the working of the atmospheric machine. As already pointed out, however, the energising and raising of atmospheric is by no means confined to equatorial regions, but takes place more or less over the whole planetary surface. The same applies to the energy return. The complete cycle may be carried out in temperate zones; gaseous, also, leaving equatorial regions at high alt.i.tudes do not necessarily reach the polar regions, but may attain their lowest levels at intermediate points. Neither do such necessarily proceed to the regions of low velocity by purely linear paths. On the contrary, they may and do move both towards the poles and downwards by circuitous and even vortical paths. In fact, as will be readily apparent, their precise path is of absolutely no moment in the consideration of energy return.

It might naturally be expected that such movements of the atmospheric air as have been described above would give rise to great atmospheric disturbance over the earth's surface, and that the transfer of gaseous material from pole to equator and vice versa would be productive of violent storms of wind. Such storms, however, are phenomena of somewhat rare occurrence; the atmosphere, on the whole, appears to be in a state of comparative tranquillity. This serenity of the atmosphere is, however, confined to the lower strata, and may be ascribed to an inherent stability possessed by the air ma.s.s as a whole in virtue of the accession of energy to it at high levels. As already explained, the transfer of energy from the vapour to the air is accomplished at comparatively low alt.i.tudes, and when this reaction is taking place the whole tendency of the energised material is to move upwards. In so moving it tends to leave behind it the condensed aqueous vapour, and would, therefore, rise to the higher alt.i.tudes in a comparatively dry condition. This dryness is accentuated by the further loss of aqueous vapour by condensation as the air moves toward regions of low velocity. That air which actually attains to the poles will be practically dry, and having also returned, in its entirety, the surplus energy obtained from the aqueous vapour, it will be in this region practically in the condition of statical equilibrium of a gas against gravity (-- 34). But the general state of the atmosphere in other regions where a transference of energy from the aqueous vapour has taken or is taking place is very different from this condition of natural statical equilibrium which is approached at the poles. In the lower strata of the atmosphere the condition in some cases may approximate to the latter, but in the upper strata it is possessed of energy qualities quite abnormal to statical equilibrium. Its condition is rather one of the nature of stable equilibrium. It is in a condition similar to that of a liquid heated in its upper layers; there is absolutely no tendency to a direct or vertical downward circulation. In statical equilibrium, any downward movement of an air ma.s.s would simply be accompanied by the natural rise in temperature corresponding to the transformation of its energy of position, but in this condition of stable equilibrium any motion downwards must involve, not only this natural temperature rise, but also a return, either in whole or in part, of the energy absorbed from the aqueous vapour. The natural conditions are therefore against any direct vertical return. These conditions, however, favour in every respect the circulatory motion of the highly energised upper air towards regions of low velocity. All circ.u.mstances combine, in fact, to confine the more powerfully energised and highly mobile air to high alt.i.tudes. In the lower atmosphere, owing to the continuous action of the aqueous vapour on the air moving from regions of low to those of high velocity, the circulation tends largely to be a vertical one, so that this locality is on the whole preserved in comparative tranquillity. It may happen, however, that owing to changes in the distribution of aqueous vapour, or other causes, this natural stability of the atmosphere may be disturbed over certain regions of the earth's surface. The circ.u.mstances will then favour a direct or more or less vertical return of the energy of the air in the neighbourhood of these regions. This return will then take the form of violent storms of wind, usually of a cyclonic nature, and affording direct evidence of the tendency of the air to pursue vortical paths in their movement towards lower levels.

Under normal conditions, however, the operation of the atmospheric machine is smooth and continuous. The earth's axial energy, under the sun's incepting influence, steadily flows at all parts of the earth's surface through the aqueous vapour into the atmospheric, and the latter, rising from the terrestrial surface, with a motion somewhat like that of a column of smoke, spread out and speed towards regions of lower velocity, and travelling by devious and lengthened paths towards the surface, steadily return the abstracted energy in its original form.

Every operation is exactly balanced; energy expenditure and energy return are complementary; the terrestrial atmospheric machine as a whole works without jar or discontinuity, and the earth's motion of rotation is maintained with absolute uniformity.

Like every other energy machine, the atmospheric machine has clearly-defined energy limits. The total quant.i.ty of energy in operation is strictly limited by the ma.s.s of the acting materials. It is well, also, to note the purely mechanical nature of the machine. Every operation is in reality the operation of mechanical energy, and involves the movement of matter in some way or other relative to the earth's surface and under the incepting action of the earth's gravitation (---- 16, 20). The moving gaseous have as real an existence as of lead or other solid material, and require as real an expenditure of energy to move them relative to the terrestrial surface (-- 18). This aspect of the planetary machine will be more fully treated later.

Throughout this description we have constantly a.s.sumed the atmospheric mixture of oxygen and nitrogen to act as one gas, and at ordinary temperatures the respective energy properties of the two substances (-- 35) make this a.s.sumption justifiable. Both gases are then working far above their respective evaporation temperatures. But, in the higher regions of the atmosphere, where very low temperatures prevail, a point or alt.i.tude will be reached where the temperature corresponds to the evaporation or condensation temperature of one of the gases. Since oxygen appears to have the highest temperature of evaporation (see Table of Properties, p. 133), it would naturally be the first to condense in the ascent. But immediately condensation takes place, the material will become susceptible to the incepting influence of the sun, and working as it does at its temperature of evaporation it will convey its energy to the surrounding nitrogen in precisely the same fas.h.i.+on as the aqueous vapour conveys the energy to the aerial mixture in the lower atmosphere.

The whole action is made possible simply by the difference existing in the respective evaporation temperatures of the two gases. It will give rise to another cyclical atmospheric energy process exactly as already described for lower alt.i.tudes. Axial energy of rotation will be communicated to the nitrogen by the working material, which is now the oxygen, and by the movement of the nitrogen towards regions of low velocity, this transmitted energy will be finally returned to its original axial form.

It has been already explained (---- 10, 32) how all terrestrial energy processes, also, great or small, are sooner or later linked to the general atmospheric machine. The latter, therefore, presents in every phase of its working completely closed energy circuits. In no aspect of its operation can we find any evidence of, or indeed any necessity for, an energy transmission either to or from any external body or agent such as the sun. Every phenomenon of Nature is, in fact, a direct denial of such transmission.

The student of terrestrial phenomena will readily find continuous and ample evidence in Nature of the working of the atmospheric machine. In the rising vapour and the falling rain he will recognise the visible signs of the operation of that great secondary process of transmission by which the inherent axial energy of the earth is communicated to the air The movements of bodies, animate and inanimate, on the earth's surface, the phenomena of growth and decay, and in fact almost every experience of everyday life, will reveal to him the persistent tendency of the energy of secondary processes to revert to the atmospheric machine. And in the winds that traverse the face of the globe he will also witness the mechanism of that energy return which completes the atmospheric cyclical process. It may be pointed out here also that the terrestrial cyclical energy processes are not necessarily all embodied in the atmosphere. The author has reason to believe, and phenomenal evidence is not awanting to show, that the circulatory motions of the atmosphere are in some degree reproduced in the sea. The reader will readily perceive that as regards stability the water composing the sea is in precisely the same condition as the atmosphere, namely, that of a liquid heated in its upper strata, and any circulatory motion of the water must therefore be accompanied by corresponding transformations of energy. That such a circulatory motion takes place is undoubted, and in the moving ma.s.s of sea-water we have therefore a perfectly reversible energy machine of the same general nature as the atmospheric machine, but working at a very much slower rate. It is not beyond the limits of legitimate scientific deduction to trace also the working of a similar machine in the solid material of the earth. The latter is, after all, but an agglomeration of loose material bound by the force of gravitation into coherent form. By the action of various erosive agencies a movement of solid material is continually taking place over the earth's surface. The material thus transported, it may be, from mountain chains, and deposited on the sea-bed, causes a disturbance of that gravitational equilibrium which defines the exact form of the earth. The forces tending to maintain this equilibrium are so enormous compared with the cohesive forces of the material forming the earth that readjustment continuously takes place, as evidenced by the tremors observed in the earth's crust. Where the structure of the latter is of such a nature as to offer great resistance to the gravitational forces, the readjustment may take the form of an earthquake. Geological evidence, as a whole, strongly points to a continuous kneading and flow of terrestrial material. The structure of igneous rocks, also, is exactly that which would be produced from alluvial deposits subjected during these cyclical movements to the enormous pressure and consequent heating caused by superimposed material. The occurrence of coal in polar regions, and of glacial residue in the tropics, may be regarded as further corroborative evidence. From this point of view also, it becomes unnecessary to postulate a genesis for the earth, as every known geological formation is shown to be capable of production under present conditions in Nature, and in fact to be in actual process of production at all times.

42. _Experimental a.n.a.logy and Demonstration of the General Mechanism of Energy Transformation and Return in the Atmospheric Cycle_

In the preceding articles, the atmospheric machine has been regarded more or less from the purely physical point of view. The purpose of this demonstration is now to place before the reader what might be termed the mechanical aspects of the machine; to give an outline, using simple experimental a.n.a.logies, of its nature and operation when considered purely and simply as a mechanism for the transformation and return of mechanical energy.

Familiar apparatus is used in ill.u.s.tration. In all cases, it is merely some adaptation of the simple pendulum (-- 21). Its minute structural details are really of slight importance in the discussion, and have accordingly been ignored, but the apparatus generally, and the energy operations embodied therein, are so familiar to physicists and engineers that the experimental results ill.u.s.trated can be readily verified by everyday experience. It is of great importance, also, in considering these results, to bear in mind the principles already enunciated (---- 13, 20) with reference to the operation of mechanical energy on the various forms of matter. The general working conditions of energy systems with respect to energy limits, stability, and reversibility (-- 23) should also be kept in view.

As an introductory step we shall review first a simple system of rotating pendulums. Two simple pendulums CM and DM{1} (Fig. 9) are mounted by means of a circular collar CD upon a vertical spindle AB, which is supported at A and B and free to rotate. When the central spindle AB is at rest the pendulums hang vertically; when energy is applied to the system, and AB is thereby caused to rotate, the spherical M and M{1} will rise by circular paths about C and D.

This upward movement, considered apart from the centrifugal influence producing it, corresponds in itself to the upward movement of the simple pendulum (-- 21) against gravity. It is representative of a definite transformation, namely, the transformation of the work energy originally applied to the system and manifested in its rotary motion, into energy of position. The movements of the rotating pendulums will also be accompanied by other energy operations a.s.sociated with bearing friction and windage (---- 23, 29), but these operations being part of a separate and complete cyclical energy process (-- 32), they will in this case be neglected.

[Ill.u.s.tration: FIG. 9]

It will be readily seen, however, that the working of this rotating pendulum machine, when considered as a whole, is of a nature somewhat different from that of the simple pendulum machine in that the energy of position of the former (as measured by the vertical displacement of M and M{1} in rotation) and its energy of rotation must increase concurrently, and also in that the absolute maximum value of this energy of position will be attained when the pendulum reach merely the horizontal level HL in rotation. The machines are alike, however, in this respect, that the transformation of energy of motion into energy of position is in each case a completely reversible process. In the working of the rotating pendulums the limiting amount of energy which can operate in this reversible process is dependent on and rigidly defined by the maximum length of the pendulum arms; the longer the arms, the greater is the possible height through which the at their extremities must rise to attain the horizontal position in rotation. It will be clear also that it is not possible for the whole energy of the rotating system to work in the reversible process as in the case of the simple pendulum. As the pendulum rise, the ratio of the limiting energy for reversibility to the total energy of the system becomes in fact smaller and smaller, until at the horizontal or position of maximum energy it reaches a minimum value. This is merely an aspect of the experimental fact that, as the pendulum approach the ultimate horizontal position, a much greater increment of energy to the system is necessary for their elevation through a given vertical distance than at the lower levels. A larger proportion of the applied energy is, in fact, stored in the material of the system in the form of energy of strain or distortion.